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Witteveldt J , Blundell R , Maarleveld JJ , McFadden N , Evans DJ , Simmonds P . 2014. The influence of viral RNA secondary structure on interactions with innate host cell defences. Nucleic Acids Res , 42 (5), pp. 3314-3329. | AllSaints Zoku Clutch Geniue Stockist Sale Online Really Clearance Enjoy 6PJYXkh
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RNA viruses infecting vertebrates differ fundamentally in their ability to establish persistent infections with markedly different patterns of transmission, disease mechanisms and evolutionary relationships with their hosts. Although interactions with host innate and adaptive responses are complex and persistence mechanisms likely multi-factorial, we previously observed associations between bioinformatically predicted RNA secondary formation in genomes of positive-stranded RNA viruses with their in vivo fitness and persistence. To analyse this interactions functionally, we transfected fibroblasts with non-replicating, non-translated RNA transcripts from RNA viral genomes with differing degrees of genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS). Single-stranded RNA transcripts induced interferon-β mediated though RIG-I and PKR activation, the latter associated with rapid induction of antiviral stress granules. A striking inverse correlation was observed between induction of both cellular responses with transcript RNA structure formation that was independent of both nucleotide composition and sequence length. The consistent inability of cells to recognize RNA transcripts possessing GORS extended to downstream differences from unstructured transcripts in expression of TNF-α, other interferon-stimulated genes and induction of apoptosis. This functional association provides novel insights into interactions between virus and host early after infection and provides evidence for a novel mechanism for evading intrinsic and innate immune responses.

Harvala H , Wong V , Simmonds P , Johannessen I , Ramalingam S . 2014. Acute viral hepatitis - should the current screening strategy be modified? J Clin Virol , 59 (3), pp. 184-187. | AllSaints Billie Mini Leather Crossbody Outlet Cheap Authentic Perfect Sale Online Discount Best Wholesale Cost Sale Online mRwqC
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BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis has changed. Since the introduction of safe and effective vaccines for hepatitis A and B in 1980s, the incidence of acute infections caused by these viruses has been declining in the UK. At the same time, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been recognised as an increasingly important cause of acute hepatitis, but testing is not widely available. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the viral causes of acute hepatitis, and use that data to modify the current diagnostic algorithm. STUDY DESIGN: A Cognos search was performed to collate subjects tested for HAV, HBV, HCV, HEV, EBV and CMV between June 2010 and December 2012. Information included virological result and their ALT level if done within 5 days from virological testing. RESULTS: From 3462 subjects with suspected acute viral hepatitis, only 25% had biochemical evidence of acute hepatitis (n=854; ALT>100IU/l). The frequency of detection of acute HEV infection (25/409) was over 31-times higher than that of HAV (6/3462), and 7-times higher than that of HBV (24/3462). Most cases of acute HAV, HEV, EBV and CMV infections presented with abnormal ALT levels. Most EBV infections were associated with lymphadenopathy (23/34); in comparison most of CMV infections were not associated with lymphadenopathy (18/22). CONCLUSIONS: HEV screening should be included in the initial testing panel for acute hepatitis and screening at least for HAV and HEV might be limited to those with abnormal ALT levels.

Smith DB , Simmonds P , Bell JE . 2014. Brain viral burden, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in HAART-treated HIV positive injecting drug users. J Neurovirol , 20 (1), pp. 28-38. | Show Abstract | Sast Cheap Price Isabel Marant Bryce leather and suede sneakers Quality For Sale Free Shipping H7KIK

The long-term impact of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on brain status in injecting drug users (IDU) treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is unknown. Viral persistence in the brain with ongoing neuroinflammation may predispose to Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated the brains of ten HAART-treated individuals (six IDU and four non-DU), compared with ten HIV negative controls (six IDU and four non-DU). HIV DNA levels in brain tissue were correlated with plasma and lymphoid tissue viral loads, cognitive status, microglial activation and Tau protein and amyloid deposition. Brain HIV proviral DNA levels were low in most cases but higher in HIV encephalitis (n = 2) and correlated significantly with levels in lymphoid tissue (p = 0.0075), but not with those in plasma. HIV positive subjects expressed more Tau protein and amyloid than HIV negative controls (highest in a 58 year old), as did IDU, but brain viral loads showed no relation to Tau and amyloid. Microglial activation linked significantly to HIV positivity (p = 0.001) and opiate abuse accentuated these microglial changes (p = 0.05). This study confirms that HIV DNA persists in brains despite HAART and that opiate abuse adds to the risk of brain damage in HIV positive subjects. Novel findings in this study show that (1) plasma levels are not a good surrogate indicator of brain status, (2) viral burden in brain and lymphoid tissues is related, and (3) while Tau and amyloid deposition is increased in HIV positive IDU, this is not specifically related to increased HIV burden within the brain.

Harvala H , Van Nguyen D , McIntyre C , Ahuka-Mundeke S , Ngole EM , Delaporte E , Peeters M , Simmonds P . 2014. Co-circulation of enteroviruses between apes and humans. J Gen Virol , 95 (Pt 2), pp. 403-407. | Show Abstract | Classic Cheap Price Makavelic Sierra Superiority bind up backpack Free Shipping Newest g5gl7gcZ

A total of 139 stool samples from wild chimpanzees, gorillas and bonobos in Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were screened for enteroviruses (EVs) by reverse transcription PCR. Enterovirus RNA was detected in 10 % of samples, comprising eight from 58 sampled chimpanzees (13.8 %), one from 40 bonobos (2.5 %) and five from 40 gorillas (12.2 %). Three viruses isolated from chimpanzees grouped with human isolate EV-A89 and four (four chimpanzees, one gorilla) represented a newly identified type, EV-A119. These species A virus types overlapped with those circulating in human populations in the same area. The remaining six strains comprised a new species D type, EV-D120, infecting one chimpanzee and four gorillas, and a single EV variant infecting a bonobo that was remarkably divergent from other EVs and potentially constitutes a new enterovirus species. The study demonstrates both the circulation of genetically divergent EV variants in apes and monkeys as well as those shared with local human populations.

Harvala H , Smith D , Salvatierra K , Gunson R , von Wissmann B , Reynolds A , Frew C , MacLean A , Hunt A , Yirrell D , Simmonds P , McMenamin J , Templeton K et al . 2014. Burden of influenza B virus infections in Scotland in 2012/13 and epidemiological investigations between 2000 and 2012. Euro Surveill , 19 (37), pp. 6-12. | Show Abstract | Cheap Best Prices Dolce amp; Gabbana 100 Authentic Dolce Gabbana Suede Leather Rabbit Fur Cross Body Bag Cheapest Buy Cheap Sale r0CUvnb

© 2014, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. We describe the burden of influenza B infections in Scotland during a 13-year study period. Influenza A and B viruses cocirculated throughout the period, with numbers of influenza B cases approaching or exceeding those of influenza A during six influenza seasons. Influenza B viruses of both Victoria and Yamagata lineage were detected in two of six seasons investigated. For the 2012/13 season, influenza B accounted for 44.4% of all influenzas, with the highest incidence in those under the age of five years. Influenza B virus infections led to fewer admissions to an intensive care unit (ICU) and a lower mortality rate than influenza A (37 vs 81 ICU admissions and three vs 29 deaths) during the 2012/13 season. However, a quarter of those admitted to ICU with influenza B had not been immunised and 60% had not received specific influenza antiviral therapy. This highlights the need for consistent influenza vaccination and prompt usage of antiviral treatment for identified risk groups. Combining the newly introduced vaccination programme for children with the use of a tetravalent vaccine may provide the opportunity to improve the control of influenza B in those with the highest influenza B burden, children and young adolescents.

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The family Hepeviridae consists of positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalian species, as well as chickens and trout. A subset of these viruses infects humans and can cause a self-limiting acute hepatitis that may become chronic in immunosuppressed individuals. Current published descriptions of the taxonomical divisions within the family Hepeviridae are contradictory in relation to the assignment of species and genotypes. Through analysis of existing sequence information, we propose a taxonomic scheme in which the family is divided into the genera Orthohepevirus (all mammalian and avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates) and Piscihepevirus (cutthroat trout virus). Species within the genus Orthohepevirus are designated Orthohepevirus A (isolates from human, pig, wild boar, deer, mongoose, rabbit and camel), Orthohepevirus B (isolates from chicken), Orthohepevirus C (isolates from rat, greater bandicoot, Asian musk shrew, ferret and mink) and Orthohepevirus D (isolates from bat). Proposals are also made for the designation of genotypes within the human and rat HEVs. This hierarchical system is congruent with hepevirus phylogeny, and the three classification levels (genus, species and genotype) are consistent with, and reflect discontinuities in the ranges of pairwise distances between amino acid sequences. Adoption of this system would include the avoidance of host names in taxonomic identifiers and provide a logical framework for the assignment of novel variants.

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